About the biochar
Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass or wood, that is, its slow burning with limited oxygen access.
At a temperature of 300-500 degrees, wood tar is not burned completely and covers charcoal pores with a thin layer. Cured tars have the ability to ion exchange, i.e. the ion of any substance is easily attached, and then firmly retained and not washed out even by rains.
But the substance so firmly held by the surface of the charcoal is easily assimilated by plant roots or hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi. It turns out that the bacteria-symbionts living in the soil and on the roots of plants, give out enzymes that can dissolve fertilizers and minerals. The resulting ions are captured and retained by the biochar tar, and plants, as necessary, “remove” these ions from the charcoal by their roots for nutrition.
In addition, part of the biocarp is crushed to such a size as to pass through the digestive system of the earthworm. Since some nutrients enter the soil with water of different origin, they are also captured and retained by the biochar. As a result, it turns out that the soil, with the biochar introduced into it, is able to feed plants practically without fertilizers or with a minimum amount of fertilizers.